High Scores Downloads - Upgrades, Scenarios, Maps, History, FAQ, Translations and Utilities. Game Errors Cheat FAQ Pics. of Game Buildings Screen Shots
Master of Orion II PC Game
Microprose's Civilization II Historic Scenarios .SCN
PC Game & Civ School
Doctor Who About Webmaster
Links 1 / 2 The March of Liberty
Moonbase Game [JULY12] Space Elevator to near Earth Orbit
Isaac Asimov: I, Robot
and Galactic Empire
Science Fiction & Adventure Books Big Box Office Videos Great CD's
The Unofficial Sid Meier's Microprose Colonization PC Game Home Page - Published: 1994

NEW Game Cards below from packaging. Site launched: 4th July 1998 - Site Updated Aug13, Jul13, Jan13, Dec12, Jan12-Aug12, Jan11, Oct06, Jan06-Aug06, Dec05, Nov05, Mar05, Feb05

Experts can be Trained in any Skill by another Expert to make x2 production, or in a Indian Village for some skills.
  • Skills are as below plus: Pioneer, Scout, Soldier, Gunsmith, Blacksmith, Ore Miner, Silver Miner, Carpenter, Lumberjack, Planters (Tobacco, Cotton, Sugar, Trapper), Tobacconist, Weaver, Rum Distiller, Fur Trading Post, Farmer, and Fisherman.
  • Indian Convert (+1 production outside work), Free Colonist, Indentured Servant (pays 7 years service for Sea Passage across the Atlantic Ocean), and Petty Criminal (who can learn Tobacco Planting, or serve as a Soldier - Indian Village won't teach them because of their manors).


    Click on Colonists to see Colony Screen, Docks (London, Amsterdam, La Rochelle, and Seville), Colonists Labour Report, 5 Woodcuts of Meeting the Natives, and Esperanto Translation:

    Schoolhouse College University Arsenal Carpentry Mill Blacksmith's Shop
    Schoolhouse College University Military College Carpentry Mill Blacksmith's Shop

    University is for Elder Statesmen, Jesuit Missionaries, and Firebrand Preachers.

  • City Crest The Sun and the Moon our Guide. A Sextant was used to help the Wooden Ships Navigate. And the North Star helps to Sail in the right direction at Night.

    Greenwich Mean Time.

    J. P. Morgan (1837-1913), Railroad Investor, United States of America. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. And Hudson-Erie Railroad. Eastern Standard Time.

    Colonization Manual
    (pdf) [1756 KB]
    On-line, to Save, or for Printing. Guaranteed to Download!

    Download Colonization Free freecol V0.10.5 Coin Op. Games GAMES DOWNLOADS - Windows 95/98: Microprose Suite, Imperialism, Risk, & Books Great Commodore
    A m i g a Computer Games
    The 10 Game Adviser Screens -
    Customising the Game
    Choosing a Good Colony Site Choosing a European Power -
    Declaring Independence, or Not?
    Choosing what Colony Improvements to Build Setting up Wagon Train Trade Routes Military Strategy -
    On Land / At Sea
    Vintage Computer Games on eBay:
    1. Sid Meier's *** Classic *** Railroad Tycoon (1993).
    2. Kings Quest from Sierra Software, California.
    3. The Lost Treasures of Infocom
      from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
    4. Microprose Colonization; and
    5. Microprose Colonization from the German eBay Site, which always has a lot of bargains with cheap Postage to Europe. Use Airmail to North America as this is much quicker, days instead of months.
    Great Empire Building Games:
    1. *** New *** Sid Meier's Railroads (2012), better than other similar Games.
      Try building the '20th Century Limited' between New York City and Chicago.
    2. Also Try: Civilization IV: Colonization (2010), by Firaxis Games.
    3. Sid Meier's Railroad Tycoon Deluxe (FREE Download 2006). You can even build the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for Real! Or a Trans-continental Railroad e.g. Santa Fe, Central-Pacific, Union-Pacific, or Great Northern Railroad; Great Western Railway in England; And the Orient Express in Europe.
    4. Microprose's Master of Orion II (1996), build a Star Empire! And Alpha Centauri (1999) and Alpha Centauri: Alien Crossfire also by Firaxis Games.
    5. Sid Meier's Microprose *** Great Re-Play Value *** Civilization II (1996), and Civilization II: Conflicts in Civilization for Windows 95/98. Explore the Map, Invent New Useful Technologies, Build Armies and Fortifications, Marketplaces, Libraries, Factories... Intuitive to Play.
    Town Hall The game requires Liberty Bells to make Founding Fathers in the Congress and improve Colony Production efficiency. You can put an Elder Statesman (x2) or Free Colonist in the Town Hall to make Liberty Bells. A Printing Press when built generates +50% Liberty Bells, and a Newspaper makes it up to +100%. Check: Pictures of Buildings. Some Political Founding Fathers further increase Sons of Liberty membership (SOL).

    The March of Liberty Legal and Revolutionary Texts including the Declaration of Independence, and
    "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" Book by Adam Smith (1776).

    I have played now and then since 1994 but never known how my high score compares to others.
    So today I browsed on-line and saw your homepage and realised it´s not only me that is putting all these hours into a 20 year old game.
    There are plenty of them!

    Todays end was defenitly not my best but a good average I took 2 print screen but did not close the game.
    Do you also want my save file? Which one? I send all 3 files recently changed.
    I am from Sweden and my english hasn't been used much since the last 20 years when I played colonize instead of going to school. ;-)

    Thank you and regards     [Spellchecked]

    Colony Screen Europe Screen

    Civilization II Game Microprose Civilization II Game. Released: 1996. Play as one of 7 world powers, build, research, and conquer. Following games are add-ons to this original game. Try 'Tutorial' mode on the lowest level first to learn how to play the game. Rated: 96%. Great re-play value especially with Historic Scenarios.
    Buy Civilization II Game from Amazon.

    Conflicts in Civilization - has 20 Scenarios and a Scenario Editor for Civilization II including:
    1. 335-322 BC - Alexander the Great
    2. 624-756 - Jihad: The Rise of Islam
    3. 1096-1220 - The Crusades
    4. 1209-1328 - The Mongol Horde
    5. 1492-1741 - The Age of Discovery
    6. 1776-1783 - The War for Independence
    1. 1798-1818 - The Age of Napoleon
    2. 1861-1865 - The American Civil War
    3. 1914-1918 - The Great War - ww1.scn
    4. 1979 - World War: 1979 - ww79.scn
    5. The Best of the Net
    Civilization II Scenarios

    Colonization Game Card 2

    The Sailors liked to 'Dance a Merry Jig' like the 'Hornpipe'. There are also stirring Songs like 'Heart of Oak'. They got a 'Tot of Rum' every day, made from Sugar. The Royal Navy:
    • The Royal Navy Flagship the HMS Victory won the Battle of Trafalgar at the cost of it's Admiral, Sir Horatio Nelson. On 21st October, 1805 - off Cape Trafalgar, Spain. 27 British Ships-of-the-Line beat 33 French and Spanish Man-O-War, due to Nelson's daring tactic, and faster gun loading in the British Fleet because of trained Sailors, instead of pressed Soldiers for the Spanish. A few Prize Ships were captured intact. The British Crew earning a Prize (1/3 of the cost of the ship divided between the Crew as a Bounty), and were sold back to Spain when it changed sides in the Napoleonic War (1803-1815). 19 Enemy Warships were Taken or Destroyed by Lord Nelson. I would recommend Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe's Trafalgar as a good source for the Naval Battle of Trafalgar.
    • The British Fleet beat the combined French and Spanish Fleet making the British the predominate power in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. This Flagship can be visited in the Historic Dockyard Portsmouth. It's is of Man-O-War Class, which is two times as powerful as a Frigate Class Ship, with three times the casualties. Hornblower sails in a Frigate Class Ship. Nova Scotia, Canada, and Finland provided Timber for building the Tall Ships.
    • The Wooden Ships were outclassed by the Iron Clad e.g. HMS Warrior, 'not a Shoot in Anger', in Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, with HMS Victory, and HMS Mary Rose - Henry the VIII's Greatest Warship, 'down like a stone' with him watching from Southsea Castle, on the Solent Sea, next to the Isle of Wight. The English still won the Sea Battle of 1545 against the Royal French Navy.
    • A Privateer is a Pirate Ship backed by a European Government with a Letter de Marquis.
    • Sir Francis Drake (1540-96) was an English sea Captain, Privateer, Navigator, and Politician of the Elizabethan era. He carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580. His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a Pirate to the Spaniards to whom he was known as El Draque, Draque being the Spanish pronunciation of "Drake". King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, for his life. He also fought the Spanish Amarda in 1588, from Chatham, North Kent.
    • Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was a famous sea Captain. He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I, and was knighted in 1585. He was involved in the early English colonisation of Virginia. Establishing a permanent settlement on Roanoke Island in 1587. And brought back the Potato and Tobacco to England.
    • The Royal Navy has bases in Portsmouth Harbour, Plymouth Sound, Rosyth (eastern Scotland), Port Stanley, and Gibralter. It once had bases in Chatham Dockyard on the Thames Estuary; New York City (heavily Garrisoned once); Halifax, Nova Scotia; Port Royal, Jamaica (for Pirates); and Simon's Town, Cape Province - near Table Mountain.
    • The Aircraft Carriers HMS Elizabeth, and HMS Prince of Wales are being constructed in Portsmouth Dockyard with pre-fabricated section from Govan Shipyard,Glasgow; Barrow-in-Furness; Tyne & Wear, Newcastle; Rosyth Shipyard and Naval Base etc... The Carriers are getting Key Fighters from the United States.

    Colonization Game Card 3

    US Economy

    My Favourite Books

    Science Fiction, Adventure, and History Books.

    Book List with Pictures of Exciting Book Covers.

    The City and the Stars book is about the last city on Earth where people are retrieved from the Eternity Circuits in the Hall of Creation to live 1,000 years and go back again to live once more later. The city is run by a giant Computer and Robots and the Eternity circuits ensure it stands for ever.
    A City that will stand against Time itself!

    Foundation's Friends in Honour of Isaac Asimov. Trantor Falls Acrobat pdf file.
    "The Imperial Palace stood at the center of a hundred square miles of greenery ...
    ... on the metalled world of Trandor ...
    ... Dagobert VIII Emperor of the galaxy and his officers still groped for ways to beat Gilmer's latest on slaughter ...
    ... Another successful landing, sire, this one in the Nevrask Sector ...
    ... by the Space Fiend ..."

    Foundation by Isaac Asimov.
    "One man understood the shifting patterns of the inhabited cosmos. This was Hari Seldon, the great scientist of the First [Galactic] Empire. The mathematics of psychohistory enabled Seldon to predict the collapse of the Empire and the onset of an era of chaos and war. To restore civilization in the shortest possible time, Seldon set up two Foundations."

    The Second Foundation Trilogy, Books set in Isaac Asimov's Universe:

    • Foundation's Fear
    • Foundation and Chaos
    • Foundation's Triumph

    Authorised by the Estate of Isaac Asimov, by Greg Bear.

    Foundation's Friends -
    Includes [Imperial] 'Trandor Falls' (Capital of the Galactic Empire) by Harry Turtledove; and 'The Forth Law of Robotics'. Trandor is a Star System near the Galactic Core, on our Spiral Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy. Where Stars are only 0.5 Light Years apart, and not too near the Central Black Hole. It may be possible to open a Spacial Gateway to Trandor for 50,000 People to live there. The Trandor Imperial Computer has Data Archives, and MemGrams. There are also Replicators, for Food. The Walls are made of Steel, with Velvet halfway up - the 'Caves of Steel'.
    Check: Foundation's Friends in Honour of Isaac Asimov.

    HAL's Legacy by Arthur C. Clarke - How close are we to a Sentient Computer like in '2001: A Space Odyssey' (1968).

    • The '2001: A Space Odyssey' Book also notes the best day the Caveman ever had!!!!! Not very good by our standards. But they were only Hunter Gatherers, without even pottery. The Celts quality of live was x15 times better, because they had cloth, a knife with hilt (not flint), and pottery. A 'Sentinel' visits the Cavemen of Dimensions 1x4x9! It teaches them how to make tools.
    • Then we go to the Space Age. With a Scientist taking a Spaceship from the Earth to a Spacestation in Near-Earth Orbit. Then another one on to then Moon, where another buried 'Sentinel' has been found, after emitting a large magnetic pulse.
    • A trip to the Planet Jupiter follows. With the ship run by a Sentient Thinking Computer: HAL (see 'HAL's Legacy Book' on how far we can get to making a Computer think like a Human, it would have to go through a learning Phase off course first). Another larger 'Sentinel' is found on one of Jupiter's Moons. The next Planet Saturn is too far to visit by any Spaceship with our Technology as it is much to Cold that far from the Sun.

    Jeffrey Archer has some books with very interesting titles: 'Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less', 'Kane and Abel' (about a Pole who makes it big as a Chicago Hotel Chain Owner), 'First Among Equals', and a few more that might be of interest to People. Quite Imaginative. Apparently He knows a lot of People so that helps.

    My Favourite Videos Including:
    • Captain Invincible - set in New York City, and Australia.
    • War Games (1983) - about how cool Computer Programming was in the '80's.
    • Tron (1982) - early Science Fiction meets [understandable level] Computing and Programming. With state of the art graphics for the day.
    • Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy (1981) by Douglas Adams. See My Favourite Books for Hhgtg Books including:
    • For me the Meaning of Life is to do something: Interesting, Exciting, and Adventurous like playing a Great Computer Game, reading a Good Book, watching a Exciting Film, learning stuff from the news or a Documentary, or going for a Walk (and getting endorphins, good feeling natural chemical). God helped make the world, and helps run it. Some people say Religion is the meaning of their lives.
    • Infocom PC Computer Games by the Highly Imaginative Author Douglas Adams. Perhaps he was Empowered, like some other Authors and Script Writers. e.g. Bureaucracy, Planetfall, Stationfall, hhgtg (don't forget to >TURN LIGHT ON), Zork, Beyond Zork... Infocom Authors include Steve Meretsky, Dave Lebling, and Marc Blank.
    • Other People's Money (1991) - with Danny DeVito. What's the meaning of Life? "Make as much as you can for as long as you can. Then the one with the most when they die Wins!". Sometimes this works as the profit is re-invested or seized on death and re-used. It might also go to Shareholders as a Dividend, or Pension Funds. There is a problem however, that some money doesn't come back immediately, as well paid Staff save it for a plush Retirement Home - Years in the Future.
      OR Run a needed profitable company with good working conditions for the workforce. Like Staff Canteen, 1 hour (not 1/2 hour) Lunch Break, and Fair Wages.
    • The Last of the Mohicans, set in 1757. During the on going 7 Years War between France and Great Britain in the Wilderness of Upstate New York. Both with Indian Allies (Huron, Ottawa, and Mohican), and Colonial Militia. Fighting for control of the Continent, and the lucrative Fur Trade. See: The French and Indian War (1754-63).
    • "The Live of Brian" is also of interest. A light satire about Jesus's life, by Monty Python. After Monty Python's "What's the meaning of Life" Film.
    • new "What's the meaning of Life, the Universe, and Everything?". Personally for me it is understanding the Universe as completely as possible. Playing Great Computer Games, Reading a Good Book, Programming, Watching Interesting TV, and Listening to Music. And a bit of Dielectric or Rhetoric - a debate or conversation about History, Religion or Science. This may have happened many times in the 'Town Hall' of the Colonies in Colonization about Liberty, and Freedom of Religion. Or doing something Interesting, Existing, and Adventurous.. Some people like Sport, or Driving their Car.
    • "The Long Dark Tea Time of the Soul"
    • "Dirk Gentry's Holistic Detective Agency"

    • Introduction to Microprose Colonization, a historical strategic resource management game. Play as the English, French, Dutch, or Spanish to Colonize the New World. Trade Furs, Tobacco, Cotton, Sugar, Manufactured Goods: Coats, Cigars, Cloth, Rum... and make War with other Europeans, the resident Indian Civilizations, and finally your Mother Country. The Indians 1,000 or so Indian Tribes are represented by the: Arawak, Aztecs, Incas, Tupi, Iroquois, Cherokee, Sioux, and Apache. All at different levels of development, and with different skills to teach the Europeans including Planting Skills specific to the Americas.
    • Training Colonists - a trained Colonist produces x2 the output of a normal one.
      Indentured Servants, and Petty Criminals can be trained up. Go to the Village to get an Indian Skill. Indian Converts produce +1 more output in the fields than a Free Colonist.
      • Skills come from Immigrants, Capture, Buy, Teach in Indian Villages, Self Taught, Indian Converts, and Educational Buildings.

    Civ and Col
    Civ Fanatics Colonization Forum
    E-mail the Webmaster
    with questions, material, and comments at: david.ledgard@tiscali.co.uk
    Microprose Colonization Manual (pdf) [1756 KB] - On-line, to Save, or for Printing. Guaranteed to Download!
    'Right Click' Mouse on document and select 'Print' to print.
    Buy Colonization  here.
    It works under XP.

    Labor Screen Advisor

    For some reason Microprose never made Colonization II [Civilization IV: Colonization has come out!]. Probably because it was not as popular as Civ. and because they didn't know what to do about the glaring absence of slaves. They're damned if they do and they're damned if they don't. If they put them in they're racist's. If they didn’t 90% of fans spew saying it isn't historically accurate. In England at least trade ships sailed from Europe (with trade goods) to Africa (for Slaves) to America (for Tobacco etc...). There is no Africa docks screen. At one point 50% of the population of the English Colonies were Slaves. There is very little scope for adding new features too. Sid had very little input into the game, and it was rushed out, an extra months work and play testing might have improved it greatly.

  • The March of Liberty details many key events in the Colonization of the Americas: Religious, Political, and Economic. With links to important documents.

    The Continental Congress - Founding Fathers:

    • Trade -
      Peter Minuit (1580-1639) "Director-general of the Dutch West India Company's Colony in America, he bought the Island of Manhattan from the Indians for $24. Once Peter Minuit joins your Continental Congress, the cost of purchasing land from the Indians is cut in half."
      Adam Smith (1723-1790) "British [Scottish] economist who published the first major work of political economy An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which was a detailed examination of the consequences of economic freedom. Adam Smith allows factory level buildings to be built in the colonies."
      Peter Stuyvesant (1610-1672)
      "First successful Governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (New York), he ruled harshly, and promotes increased trade and increased protection of New World interests. Peter Stuyvesant allows construction of the custom house in your colonies which can streamline trade with Europe."
    • Exploration -
      Henry Hudson (????-1611)
      "An English explorer in service of the Dutch, he explored the Chesapeake and Delaware bays and the Hudson River as far north as Albany. Hudson later discovered Hudson bay and was finally killed by mutineers. Hudson bay became a primary fur trapping preserve, and the Hudson Bay Company operated extensive trapping and processing facilities for many years. When Hudson joins your Continental Congress, the output of all fur trappers increases by 100%."
    • Military
    • Political
    • Religious -
      William Brewster (1567-1644)
      "One of the Pilgrim Fathers and framers of the Mayflower Compact, William Brewster served as the first Pilgrim minister, and was instrumental in organising the party that sailed on the Mayflower. With Brewster in the Congress, you can select which of the three available immigrants to move from the recruitment pool is driven to the docks whenever religious unrest causes a immigrant to move from the recruitment pool to the docks (see Immigration and Population Growth). In addition petty criminals and indentured servants no longer appear on the docks to immigrate."
    • Consists of 25 Members in total (5 per field) gained with SOL (Sons of Liberty) points:
    • 5 Spanish, 1 Portuguese, 5 English, 2 Scottish, 3 Dutch, 2 French, 1 German, 4 American, 1 Native American, 1 Latin American.
    • Some very famous, others less famous, but very influential in their time but less well known.
    • Each brings different advantages to the player on joining your Congress. Some essential before Declaring Independence.

    Lost New York runs using HTML TADS Interpreter 3
    LOSTNY.zip (353Kbytes) WinZip File, by Neil deMause.
    "As a bored tourist in the Big Apple, you discover a time-travel device that lets you witness first-hand the development of the city in four centuries. A well-researched period piece with good wry descriptive prose, rather sad in many places about the passing of old landmarks and the ruthlessness of modernity. Good explorability, although towards the end trekking about and waiting for trains can get to be a chore. The puzzles are mostly (but not entirely) straightforward, but careful examination of scenery is required to obtain equipment. The geography is representative rather than exhaustive - walking north from 14th Street, for example, takes you to 23rd Street."

    Manhatten Island, New York City

    New York City, New York State - one of the Great Cities of the World. Site of Interest: (1) The Battery Park, (2) The Brooklyn Bridge, (3) Central Park, (4) Empire State Building and Grand Central Station, (5) Wall Street, (6) Pennsylvania Station, going to Carolina, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Long Island, and New Jersey.

    Other attractions include the Statue of Liberty [built 1886] (on Liberty Island), Ellis Island [1892-1954] (were European Immigrants came in), the United Nations Building (in the Upper East Side, next to Queens Borough Bridge), and lots of Museums. And New Style Taxis, Hotels, Bloomingdale's Department Store, Staten Island Ferry, and JFK Airport on Long Island. 'the El' or Subway Train Network has several branches including the Hudson Line, Harlem Line, New Haven Line, New Canaan Branch, and Danbury Branch.

    As an aside, it is known Randolph and Mortimer from the Trading Place's Movie live by the Hudson River, in the West Bronx Borough. New York City is also home to Marvel Comics: Superman, Spiderman, Johnny Voltaire etc...

    Other Websites by Webmaster with FREE Games

  • British Unit Microprose Civilization II Historical Scenarios and Maps: Spy Unit
    BoerWar.scn, alt_ww1.scn, thereich.scn, alt_ww79.scn, alt_rules.txt, europe_s.mp, Southafr.mp, tips

  • Microprose Master of Orion II Home Page - Space Resource Management PC Game. Explore a portion of the Galaxy, Research New Technologies like Hydroponics Farm & Robots, Trade and make Money, Negotiate with other Spacefaring Civilizations. Superb Token based graphics (like the Monopoly Board Game - Keep It Simple Stupid!).

  • Infoscripts: Free Text Adventures
    based on sample transcripts from Infocom Games plus Planetfall and Stationfall Maps.

    Planetfall Game Package

  • Plus: Commodore PET Corner - about one of the first Microcomputers that was produced. The Commodore PET had a tape drive, keyboard with special characters on it e.g. My School Friend Cribe and I, used the PRINT "***" Command 30 times to print a space rocket, which went up the screen like it was taking off. Cribe became a Programmer, and Team leader of Programmers. It had a Green Monochrome Monitor. Pre-Cursor to the famous Commodore 64 Computer. Which had lots of good and colourful computer games, that you loaded of a tape cassette player. It had a Video Modulator that plugged into the TV. Plus some sound effects, and music.

  • Doctor Who - Genesis of the Darleks, with Tom Baker, and his Hat and Scarf. The fourth Doctor (1974-81), and his assistant Sarah Jane Smith. By Terry Nation.
    He was also in 'The Ark in Space', 'Pyramids of Mars', 'The Brain of Morbius', and 'Destiny of the Darleks'.

  • infocom_type_games.zip 959KBytes WinZip File includes [the old] Doctor Who Games:
    • Winfocom.exe - Windows Emulator (RUN'er) - FREE not Copyrighted.
    • 7doctors - a Doctor Who Game - by david.burke@btinternet.com
    • balances - by Graham Nelson, the Oxford Mathematics Professor who coded the Inform Language.
    • beyond_zork_sample - 'Beyond Zork - Example Transcript' by Allen Garvin, 1998. Endurance, Strength, Dexterity, Intelligence, Compassion, Luck, Armor Class.
    • christminster - Set in an Ox-bridge College - by Graham Nelson
    • fifteen - play the 15 Puzzle on a Computer.
    • hadrian - by David Ledgard
    • jigsaw - by Graham Nelson
    • karn - 'Return to Karn' - by Patrick Wigfall. A Tom Baker Episode.
    • library - all Quiet on the Library Front.
    • lost - 'The Lost Spellmaker' - by Neil James Brown - 1997
    • robots - 'ROBOTS - Another abuse of the Z-Machine', A nostalgic diversion by Trobjorn Andersson.
    • space_st.z5 - 'Spacestation', Science Fiction Game by David Ledgard, type HELP to learn how to play it. Version 1 entered in 'Interactive Fiction Comp98'. Planetfall (c) Activision, Inc. Permission to use courtesy of Activision, Inc.
    • what_IF - 7 possible Alternate Histories - by David Ledgard
    • zombies - a re-make of a Commodore PET Microcomputer Game - by David Ledgard
    • ztrek - early Star Trek Game - 'Super Z Trek' - includes Phasors, Torpedoes, and Shields.

  • I am named David Magnus Ledgard for the Patron Saints and Wales, and Scandinavia (including the Shetland, and Orkney Isles) respectively. My Father worked as a Methodist Minister in Shetland around 1970. He is from Yorkshire. My Mother was brought up in Yorkshire but is half Welsh, and half London. And we have an Irishman in the family who came to Yorkshire during the Potato Famine from the County of Leitrim, in Southern Ireland.

    The name Ledgard is of Norman French origin, Anglicized during one of our numerous Wars with France ending with the Napoleonic Wars. It means 'Keeper of the Keep' - their Job was to raise and lower the Drawbridge and Portcullis which protected the entrance to the Castle. A Portcullis is on the 1 Pence Coin.

    William I (the Conquer - as Duke of Normandy) was the First King in the British Royal Family. In 1066 at the Battle of Hastings (in East Sussex) he beat the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II. Who had just repelled the Viking King Harold Harade at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Fulford near York; and force marched his men to Southern England.

    King William was Crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. And the Normans soon built a network of Motte and Bailey Wooden Castles up and down the Country. Founding Newport SE Wales, and Newcastle as frontier Towns. The Tower of London in East London on the Thames was built as a Royal Castle for the King and his entourage. Later Castles were rebuilt in Stone, as were new Cathedrals and Monasteries.

    I had a friend called Sleigh (a Norman Foot Soldier) who worked as a High Level Computer Programmer for battery monitoring equipment which a two PIC Microcontrollers on each battery. One read the battery Ampage, the other Rx and Tx signals down a fibre optic loop to a Psion Computer that reported if the battery was faulty. He likes going the café and is from East London, and a bit of a Geezer. He says there aren't any houses for local people to move in to to start a family in London.

    My Brother Jonathan looks a lot like the TV personality Frasier, and seems to have 1/3 Norman Blood which makes his strong and confident, while being decent and compassionate, re-emerging from a Ancestor way back when buried in the DNA.

    My Genome, by David Magnus Ledgard:

    • I have some Parisi Blood in the same way. They drank Milk, and Ale NOT Beer - walked a lot along the Cliff by the North Sea, or the Rivers as there was nothing else to do. They are a Celtic Tribe that migrated from France. There were only about 30,000 of them in what became Yorkshire. Many other bloodlines arrived from Celtic Briton Tribes, the Romans, and the Vikings. And to work in Mill during the Industrial Revolution. The work was boring, but they got Meat and Heating.

    • Parisi Blood generally thinks a lot and wants to know how the world works, and are inquisitive. They also tinker, building things like simple electronic circuits, or coding a simplish computer programme in Pascal, or Quick BASIC. They are generally shy, find it difficult to break the ice and make new friends or contacts. My 1/4 Welsh makes me meticulous which means I check something 2 or 3 times to make sure it is correct.

    • I'm also 20% Saxon and 2% Angle: making me 22% Anglo-Saxon. Saxon's think in straight lines and have Yellow hair, Blue eyes seem to be rare now a days. After so many died in two World Wars, because they had the courage. Saxon's like to work Hard. Some British Engineers have German Blood, which is more intelligent than Saxon Blood.

    • I'm also 7% Western French, of the more intelligent DNA. I have Green-Grey eyes. I also like going on a 'reconnoitre around my local area, or places I visit. To find interesting places, and work out the quickest route between the Station and a Job, Eatery, Shop, or Museum, for example.

    • If you look up 'Celtic Tribes of Britain' you will find there were quite a few of them e.g. Devon and Cornwall, or the Kentish People who can have big families as the Children can work picking Fruit in the Garden of England: Kent. Also Portmouth, and surrounding Towns like Havant and Fareham seem to have a little mostly Celtic Blood, and a lot of Roman mixed with Celtic Blood from the ones who had the Dark Brown Hair. Worthing a little further East in West Sussex still has a little bit of mostly Saxon Blood. Saxons like a good open air Market, working the Stall, looking a items, and getting an interesting conversation.

    • To conclude: I have Northern European Blood, which includes Northern Italy, and Sweden. Northern European Blood has invented almost everything in Science, Mathematics, Philosophy, and most Engineering; Electronics, Computers, and Programming; and Film, Television & Popular Culture; and Pop Music with Cultural Input from Westerners of African, or Mixed Decent.

    Peoples who have excelled in the Fields of Invention, Culture, and Manufacturing:

    • The French did a lot in the fields of Philosophy e.g. De Cartes ('I think, therefore I am.' & Cartesian Co-Ordinates), Pascal, and Voltaire; Engineering e.g. The TGV Fast Train, 80% Nuclear Power, and helping with the European Airbus Project; and Mathematics (École de Mathematic) - particularly during the French Revolution which believed in Liberty and Free Thought; Having been deprived of their Liberty. By being looked in a Prison Cell for example.

    • The Germans have had some fine Scientists, and excelled in the field of Industrial Chemistry. Chemistry couldn't proceed until glass test tubes, and beakers could be made to the required Quality by Industry. German Engineers are excellent at making precision Automobile Components.

    • WASP's (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants - German and English Ancestry) work Hard. And Think a lot like IBM: "People who Think. People who Do." A lot of German Blood arrived in the United States from King George I, and elector of Hanover. Including Hessian Mercenary Soldiers, and people like the TV Programme: 'the Walton's'. Most German Blood breed into Half-German like in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Pure Blood Anglo-Saxons (generally Blond Hair), Farm in Oklahoma State, or Till the Prairie Fields (which go on forever) using a Tractor. Providing there is enough Petrol. The Oil Price Spiked in 2007 at $147/Barrel, and is now at $90-$100/Barrel.

    • Southern Italy sent many Migrants to the United States, arriving at Ellis Island, New York City Immigration Department. They work quite hard, and have contributed some culture to the United States in the form of liberal Roman Catholism, Television, Movies, and Music. The early Italian-American's settled in New York City, and Brooklyn; and later moved out to Jersey, and Philadelphia. The Italian/American Mafia has several Families. Sometimes they are at War. They tried a 'Found Godfather of Godfather', 'Who is the Wisest' but this didn't work.

      Southern Italy is Poor because it is too hot to work much, except on the land. They grow the Olive in Southern Italy, and Greece, for Olive Oil to cook with, or make healthy 'Butter' Margarine. Italy also makes Beef, Milk (for Cheese), Tomatoes (without Greenhouse) and Wheat (for Spaghetti), and Garlic. Also Italy is fond of Coffee e.g. Cappuccino, Mocha (half Chocolate), or Latte. There used to be a lot of Lemons grown in Sicily once, but it's Population is greater now.

    • Japan is good at Miniaturizing and Mass Producing Electronic, and Mechanical Devices. Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, and South Korea have invented some things, and manufacture a lot.

    • China invented Large Bells, Gunpowder, and the Printing Press without movable type - i.e. one very difficult to carve wooden block that couldn't Print much. Gutenberg, a German invented the Printing Press with movable type in 1439. A Bible was soon Published, then Pamphlets followed. A simple Cannon using Gunpowder arrived in Europe about this time. Animal Husbandry was an important early Invention.

    • The British, and Americans have a Rich Mix of Bloods. There is very little remaining to be Researched!!! In any field except Nano-Technology, the Human Genome, Space Travel, and Fusion Power.

    There are 7 levels of programmers:
    1. Middle Level Programmer
    2. High Level Programmer - my Burford Comprehensive School (West Oxfordshire) Friend Christopher Green is at this level. He had some programming Jobs. But was best as a programming team leader. He now works in an Office, and has one Daughter. Also another friend from a company that makes battery monitoring equipment: Julian Sleigh is also this level. He could programme and listen to the radio at the same time. He liked going to the café.
    3. Systems Programmer - Novice Level. John English a Lecturer in Information Technology can programme at this level. He wrote an Operating System for the Motorola 68000 32-bit (Longword) Processor (1979). He has also written one book on Programming.
    4. Systems Programmer - Intermediate Level
    5. Systems Programmer - Advanced Level
    6. Systems Programmer with Core Knowledge - Microsoft Bill Gates Level, writing MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) and the BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) programming language. Which isn't Compiled first for faster running, rather it processes it's way through the Code in Run Time.
    7. Core Programmer
    Top IBM Programmers are 1/2 Machine, and Top Microsoft Programmers are 2/3 Machine.
    I myself am a Middle-High Level Programmer, when I can be bothered to push myself.
    The industry standard in Object-Orientated C++, but Quick BASIC (without line numbers) is considered somewhat better, and much more elegant.

    There are also two other important jobs:

  • System Analyst who examines a information system, and writes a report for the programmer on what code is required; also the buyer can check the report to see if it is correct, and up to standards and needs.
  • Computer Scientist - design Programming Languages, and Operating Systems in a Scientific way. In an optimal way.

    What are WizKids???
    WizKids are young people who know about Computers, programme them, enjoy programming them, and make something Fun or Useful. Like Bill Gates of Microsoft Fame who programmed MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System [5.25 Inch Disk]), and Windows 95 / 98. With some help. When Men were Men, and Programmers were Programmers listings used to come with ribbon feed, and you could look right done the listing as each page was connected to the other.

    You may have noticed there have been a lot of Intel Microprocessor types coming out lately. Here is a list of some of the IBM Clone PC (Personnel Computer) Chipsets by Intel:

    1. 4040 - a 4-bit Microprocessor for a Calculator
    2. 8088 (1979) - an 8-bit Microprocessor for the IBM PC
    3. 80186 (1982) - a 16-bit (2 byte) Microprocessor with Cooling Fan for the IBM PC and IBM Clone ...
    4. '286, '386, '486 ...
    5. Pentium I (1993) ... Pentium II, Pentium II ...
    6. Pentium IV (November 2000) - I use this Computer with Windows 7 (which can download FREE from the Microsoft site), it upgrades Windows XP and gets some bugs, and problems that make the Internet run too slow.
    7. Core Duo (x2 Microprocessors on one chip - September 2007), the slightly better Core i3, the considerably better Core i5, and a little better Core i7.

    Currently there are 10 Million Computers with a Base Unit, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor of type Pentium IV, and Core Multi-processors in Warehouses in the East, and the United States of America. As Computers use a lot of Rare Metals it seems a waste that they aren't used, or sold at a knock down price. There have been endless Laptops made which have very little Software on them. Just film websites, and office programmes. There seems to be a desperate shortage of Software, and 2D and Strategy Computer Games. FEW NEW COMPUTERS are being sold because people might forget their passwords stored in "cookies", and they have to copy all files across - either by going to the Computer Shop, or using the Read/Write CD-ROM (Compact Disk ROM). Remember you can order a Proper Computer with Big Screen and Keyboard from DELL off the internet with a Base Unit. Don't Forget to Buy a Manual from amazon.co.uk for example in e.g. BASIC Programming.

    The well known and liked Micro-Computers the Commodore 64, and BBC Micro where 8-bit (1-byte) Computers. This meant they could have Colour 0-255. 16-bit (2-byte, or Word) Computers like the very popular Commodore Amiga could have richer Colour 0-65536. 32-bit (4-byte, or Longword) Windows PC Computers could have xxRRGGBB ($00-$FF) Red-Green-Blue Colour. Which can make Red (xxFF0000) for example or any mix of Colours. The Nintendo 64 has 64-bit (8-byte, or Octbyte) i.e.. 4 x 16 lines on it's custom built chip. No 128-bit Computer ever seems to have been made as it is 'inconceivable and 'near infinitely complex'.

    Networks of Transputer Computer Chips can be connected together to make a super-computer with Parallel Processing. Used to make Computer Graphics and Films like 'toystory'.

    The Microprocessor I learned consisted of a ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit), RAM (Read Only Memory), and Control Unit (which processed Op-codes, the Accumulator, and the Status Register). The BASIC programme itself could be stored in ROM (Read Only Memory), now most of it is on the Hard Disk Drive. The 3.5" floppy disk has fallen out of use, as did the 5.25" drive before it.

    Example Op-codes (also known as Mnemonics by some people - written perfectly by some very clever and thoughtful Computer Scientists) include:

    • LDA (Load Accumulator with a Number that might also represent an ASCII Number)
    • ADD (Add two Numbers together)
    • BRA (Branch if Bit is 1 - BOOLEAN TRUE)
    • NOP (No-operation - used to time LOOPS)
    • ROL (Roll Accumulator Left) and ROR (Roll Accumulator Right) - used in a user written routine to multiply OR divide by 2. Required for some complex or VERY LOW KILO-BYTE (x1024) code.
    • RTS (Return from Sub-routine)
    An accumulator stores the current number or letter being processed, like a Calculator Screen. The ALU has commands like ADD, SUB (subtract), ROL (roll the Byte left 1), ROR (roll the Byte right 1), BRZ (Branch Zero - Division by Zero Error i.e. Zero Flag = 1 [Active]), which crashes the programme because it has no meaning in Mathematics)... There is also a Programme Counter that points to the current Command being processed. It is like a stack of plates. When you call a routine it puts the Return Address (RTS) on the Top, and processes the Function or Procedure Sub-routine, then collects the address and carries on with the code. To find the SquareRoot of a Number you call a Function: x := SquareRoot (y); with one input and one output.

    Variables are required to Run a Computer Programme:

    • BOOLEAN (TRUE or FALSE - 1 or 0) e.g. IF isJunction (Junction_Number) THEN SelectExit ();
    • CARDINAL (0, 1, 2)
    • INTEGER (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2...)
    • CONSTANT PI = 3.14159
    • REAL SqrRt (2) = 1.41421
    • Character (0-9, A-Z etc...)...

    There is also a Status Register with Flags like Division by Zero Error (if this happens the computer crashes); Carry (if two 8-bit numbers are added they might go one to make a 9-bit number - this is stored in the Carry Bit); Branch (Equal, or NOT Equal - for the IF/THEN/ELSE Statement).

    A letter can be stored as an 8-bit Number (0-255) in ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): 0-31 are control codes like 7 for the BELL sound, or 13 for Carriage Return; 32 is Space; 48-57 is 0-9; 65-89 is A-Z; 97-116 is a-z (+32, or twiddle bit 6 to TRUE). C is good at bit twiddling.

    As an interesting point of Mathematics and Physics it is said that 1/0 (one divided by 0) has no meaning or is infinite!!!!!

    ROM's (Read Only Memory):

    • ROM Chips carried the programme code, and screen display e.g 40x80 Characters addressable as an 8-bit ASCII Numbers put in the ROM address.
    • The PI/T Chip - Parallel Interface / Timer - used for Input output to the RS-232 COMM LINK / a Bank of LED's / Push Buttons / and Timing the System Clock (Try Clicking on it in the Lower-Left Hand Corner to see what it does. Also RIGHT CLICK brings up some interesting and useful options too.
    • The 68000 Processor used by some Arcade Video Games like Gauntlet, and the most popular Strategy and Fight Microcomputer EVER - the Commodore Amiga. Unfortunately it's Disks weren't copyable onto the PC Format, so all the GREAT Old Games were lost. You can't find them as no one knows what they are called, or tells anyone.
    • A few Retro TV Programmes about Intermediate Computer programmed, and Old Computer Gaming would liven up a lot of peoples lives tremendously. Instead of endless geo-politics on the 24-Hour NEWS. Most People like interacting with their Computer, it's a bit like having a very interesting Conversation at times.

    The BASIC Programming Language [Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language] was designed by Dartmouth Naval College New England.

    What Happened to the Old COMPUTER MANUAL? It used to tell you how to do all types of things on a Computer. The Electronic One is hardly ever Read. It was the Computer Programmers BIBLE. For BASIC, Pascal, Windows 95...

    There are two famous BASIC programmes for Beginners, or Quick BASIC if you use labels and not line numbers, it compiles as it runs i.e. a run-time language:

    20 GOTO 10
    10 FOR I = 1 TO 10
    20 PRINT I
    30 NEXT I
    20 INPUT A$
    40 INPUT B$
    50 IF B$ = "N" THEN GOTO 10
    10 LET A$="A"
    20 LET B$="M"
    10 A$="MMXII"
    20 L=LEN(A$)
    30 X$=LEFT$(A$,2)
    35 X=LEN(X$)
    40 Y$=MID$(A$,X,X+1)
    45 Y=LEN(Y$)
    50 Z=L-(X+Y)
    60 Z$=RIGHT$(A$,Z)
    70 PRINT "STRING = ", X$, " + ", Y$, "+", Z$
    Or if you are more Adventurous, try writing a Text Adventure Game for a BOOK:
    Tim Hartnell - Master Gamesman (For Most Popular Home Computers That Use Basic).
    "Creating Adventure Games On You Computer".
    I won this book in a COMP98 Interactive Fiction On-Line Completion for 'space_st.z5'.
  • Download:
    • new Canalization patch 1.0 for Colonization 3.0 by brut (brutt@ukr.net)
      May be you notice that there's strange thing in colonization when you won every single battle or lose every single battle of current turn. This is Combat Streak Bug that is fixed by this patch.
      1. Unzip all files to your Colonization 3.0 (DOS) directory.
      2. To launch game start file "start.bat"
      Good luck! Civfanantics Colonization Forum Battle Patch Post.

    • Download Colonization Manual here! A great help in learning the game, and the history of the time.

    • Play Colonization at Viceroy level FAQ (61Kbytes) by Patrick Frémont. "Here is a strategy guide I wrote a couple of years ago for scoring above 4000 at vice-roy level. You can publish if you're interested.
      I'll have a try at scoring above 5500 as it looks like the top score. Probably need to start revolution around 1600 !"
      Playing Colonization at ViceRoy level. Helps explain how to play Colonization.

    About Webmaster plus Favourite CD's.

  • Abandonia Download Microprose Colonization Manual (pdf) [1756 KB]
    On-line, to Save, or for Printing. Guaranteed to Download! 'Right Click' Mouse on document and select 'Print' to print.
    A great help in learning the game, and the history of the time.
  • http://www.ebay.co.uk eBay UK or http://www.ebay.com eBay US.
    Where you can buy a Second Hand Copy of Colonization for peanuts using paypal. You might be lucky and get one with a Manual, just get an old Amiga Version. Type 'colonization' in the Search Box.
  • Aside: Christopher Columbus, Genoese Explorer, discovered some of the Islands in the West Indies in 1492. So named because he thought he had gone all the way around the World to some outlying Islands off India, not realising there was a Continent in between. Financed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain (Aragon and Castile). He died in 1506 in Valladolid, Spain - never seeing the American Continental mainland.

    Colonization Start Screen

    The March of Liberty:
    From Absolute Rule by One to Universal Suffrage for All.
    Colonization Game Cover

    http://www.freecol.org/  Aiming to become Colonization 2.0.0
    Freecol site about a clone of Colonization currently at Version 0.10.5

    FreeCol Box Freecol Version 0.10.5 Freecol - Colonization Software Game Windows XP Vista 7. Available in box from eBay.

      FreeCol Version 0.10.5 : Released Sunday, 19th February 2012 This is mainly a bug-fix release to fix serious game corrupting bugs in 0.10.4. A few other bugs have been fixed, and the amount of lumber delivered when a forest tile is cleared is now more Col1 compatible.

    Suggested Improvements for the future Freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II
    General Improvements.
    The Teacher should train up Indian Converts, Indentured Servants and Petty Criminals to become Free Colonists.
    The Portuguese should be added. May be other Powers should be added.
    The Indians should be improved. Slaves and Plantations should be added.
    The Computer A.I. should be improved.
    Army tactics should be improved. The Naval tactics should be improved.
    The Commodity Prices should be made more realistic, and you should be able to sell Fish.
    Have the Preacher promote Pretty Criminals by allowing them to 'repent'.
    Others on the Web have been petitioning for a remake of Colonization. This poll is an effort to help them out. Do you think Colonization should be remade and updated?

    72%  Yes, Definitely remake it. I would pay up to £40 ($66)
    16% Yes, remake it. I would pay up to £30 ($50)
    4% Yes, remake it. I would pay up to £20 ($33)
    5% Yes, remake it, but make it as cheap as you can! I don't need it that much.
    3% Don't bother remaking it - it's great as a 
    1% Colonization? RIP.
    Vote and Current Results

    Note: Civilization IV: Colonization (2008), by Firaxis Games is out now, as the update to Microprose Colonization (1994).

    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    Promoting Colonists:
    An Expert Teacher that can train up Indians, Servants and Criminals to be Free Colonists at twice the speed.
    Have a Preacher promote Petty Criminals to Indentured Servants after sufficient Cross production through ‘repention of sins’.
    Train appropriate pupil e.g. an Expert Lumberjack in a Schoolhouse should teach a colonist cutting wood.

    view results

    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    50% less migration for the Dutch to compensate for their Merchantman and high Commodity Prices.
    Have a Portuguese Power.
    Have Portuguese special advantage of increased conversion of Indians.
    Have Portuguese special advantage of peace between Spain and Portugal until set year.
    Confine Portuguese to East of certain longitude line and Spanish West of certain longitude line until set year by order of the Pope!
    Have a Swedish Power.
    Have a Russian Power on the West Coast.
    Have the Chinese and Japanese on the West Coast.
    Have an Islamic Power of Granada.

    view results
    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    Indians come to you to trade.
    Indian v. Indian wars, especially if allied to European Powers at war.
    Name Indian Villages when visited e.g. Tenochitilan.
    Extend the GO command to go to specific locations like Indian villages.
    Capture big Indian cities, then maintain population and 2 MP colony radius.
    Click on village to get report on trade and skills after Scout has visited.
    Missionary report on trade and skills in village.

    view results
    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    Captured Soldiers that become POW's especially Veterans.
    Colonists, Infantry and Cavalry should sometimes surrender especially petty criminals. Tools, Muskets and Horses can remain with them.
    Colonies should sometimes Surrender when food runs out.
    Soldiers should sometimes die.
    Have Mercenaries e.g. Hessians in different uniforms only available from Europe.
    Other powers should have to fight for independence.
    Ghost workers displaced by siege instead of putting them all in the Carpenters Shop so when the enemy is destroyed they can go straight back to work.
    Boarders like in Sid Meier’s Alpha Centauri i.e. land closest to your colony is yours. Enemies can’t cross or build in your territory during peace.
    Auto-fire artillery on land units.

    view results
    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    Name ships.
    Build ships on lakes.
    Have Caravels, Merchantmen and Frigates sail up major rivers.
    Capture enemy ships.
    Marines to capture other ships, fight off boarders and captures coastal and island Colonies.
    10% ship insurance ‘tax’ for ships lost on high seas at higher game levels.

    view results
    What would you like to see in freecol Version 2.0.0 / Colonization II ?
    Random events like fires and hurricanes.
    De la Salle should halve the lumber cost for a Stockade instead of building a Stockade in every 3+ colony.
    Sell Salted Fish to Europe for a tidy profit.
    Have higher prices for Silver.
    Production Queue.
    More cut scenes (first dry-dock - first cathedral).
    Storage capacity visible on the map screen.
    Add more storage extensions or abolish the limit!!!
    Implement upkeep cost. But reduce tax rate increase to compensate.

    view results

    Colonization Authors. Game Published 1994.
    Sid Meier co-author of Colonization.
'[Colonization] was based, in some philosophical way, on Civilization, although it added a lot of new things.'
    Interview with Sid Meier
    about Colonization
    Brian Reynolds co-author of Colonization Douglas Caspian-Kaufman co-author of Colonization Jeff Briggs co-author and composer for Colonization, and CEO Firaxis Games.
    Piece about
    Sid and Colonization
    Sid Meier co-author of Colonization. '[Colonization] was based, in some philosophical way, on Civilization, although it added a lot of new things.' Foreword from the Official Colonization Strategy Guide by Sid Meier and Jeff Briggs. Brian Reynolds
    co-author of Colonization
    Douglas Caspian-Kaufman co-author of Colonization Jeff Briggs co-author and composer for Colonization, and CEO Firaxis Games.

    Edited highlights of the now deceased Colonization listbot mailing list.

    Store and Major Links
    www.mobygames.com Massive site about games for all console types and platforms including Colonization reviews with lots of screenshots. Covers EVERYTHING.
    Order £5.99 - Search PC Games 'Civilization IV: Colonization'
    Info Screen shots for Colonization
    http://www.ebay.co.uk eBay UK or http://www.ebay.com eBay US.
    Where you can buy a second hand copy of Colonization for peanuts using paypal.
    You might be lucky and get one with a manual. Just type 'colonization' in the search box.
    http://gametz.com Game Trading Zone.
    Where you can buy a second hand copy of Colonization. You might be lucky and get one with a manual.
    • Colonization Wikipedia Encyclopaedia Entry.

    • German Colonization Site Don't worry there are a lot of pictures to look at and there is an on-line translation service so you don't have to know German. Germany may not have had any Colonies of its own in the Americas (since it was only a collection of competing kingdoms during the duration of the game 1492-1800) but a lot of German Colonists went to America plus the Hessian Soldiers.
      Martin Falbe of Berlin writes: "The South American city of Coro (you perhaps know it as part of Sid Meier's Pirates! :-) ) was a Brandenburg-Prussian foundation."
      He continues:
      • Concerning the Coro-history: so far I refreshed my memory with the English version of the official city webportal (http://coroweb.com/history.htm). There I've learned that the city was established by the Spanish (ruled by the "western branch" of the Hapsburg family which also ruled Austria which was also part of the German Empire, just to complicate things a bit), but the settlements in that area were financed by German merchants including experienced personal for the city - 55 men that would have been called 'experienced ore miners' by Sid.....
      • The Brandenburg-Prussian colonial ambitions I had originally in mind were not directed towards the Caribbean or North/South America but towards West Africa - although they leased a Danish island in the Caribbean for a couple of years.
      • The concluding remark thus could be: The German Empire and its kingdoms had no stakes in American colonies, although indirectly several mostly financial German interests were involved.

    • As a aside: I used to live in West Germany from (1977-1980) as a Child (Kinder); other German (Deutsch) words are Sausage (Würste Frankfurters/Wieners, Bratwürste); Beer (Bier) - Germans like drinking Beer together as a Social Activity; White Wine is also grown in Western Germany on the River Rhine; and Railway Station (Bahnhoff). Germany was Unified in 1990, with the former G.D.R. (East Germany, a Soviet Satellite Country). I saw a DB (German) Diesel Train Engine on Southern British Tracks a Month, or two ago (2012). My Father was a Military Chaplain in the RAF / NATO Command in RAF Rheindahlen, West Germany near Mönchengladbach, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Mönchengladbach has it's own Football Team, and is near the Dutch Boarder. Germany is low on Labour as it has a low Birthrate but has Plant and Machinery so is in a very good position to weather the coming Economic Storm. When I studied a Degree in Electrical & Electronic Engineering at the University of Portsmouth (1991-94) there were about two dozen German Students there on the course from Hamburg.

    Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, Cambridge University
    Famous holders of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics include:

  • Sir Isaac Newton (Chair: 1669-1702) who wrote Principia Mathematica, came up with Optics; and the three laws of motion (every force has an equal and opposite reaction, the inverse squared law of gravity between Planets and Solar Bodies), and invented the Calculus: Differention and Integration. Which was used to model the gravitational pull of the Sun on the Planets and Moons in the Solar System i.e. their orbits. Used by the Viking and other Space Probes. Newtonian Theory breaks down at near light speeds, so was super-ceded by Einstein's Theory of Relativity. E=MC2 meaning Energy = Mass x Speed of Light Squared. The Amount of Energy released by a Nuclear Explosion from one Atom.
    Check: Articles of interest dealing with Science, Maths and Engineering.

  • Charles Babbage held the Chair of Lucasian Chair of Mathematics (1828-1839).
    Webmaster pictured with Babbage's Difference Engine No. 2, at the Science Museum, London. A primitive Victorian Mechanical Computer made to calculate logarithms for navigation. It never worked as Victorian Engineering wasn't precise and cheap enough but the design was sound and has been proved to be correct.

  • Stephen Hawking (1979-2009) is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and Quantum Gravity, especially in the context of Black Holes. Also known as the Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorems. He is also known for his book 'A Brief History of Time' (1988). He proposes a 10 Dimensional Universe, plus 1 of time, with time going backwards at the end of the Time??? And that everything is connected in a single Super-String.

    Quantum Gravity (QG) is the field of theoretical physics which attempts to develop scientific models that unify Quantum Mechanics (describing three of the four known fundamental interactions) with General Relativity (describing the fourth, Gravity). It is hoped that the development of a Unified Field Theory could unite: Electro-Magnetism, Gravity, and Nuclear Forces.


  • Other material by Webmaster
    All good Computer Games have been written. But the best older and oldest ones are NOT being re-published when the computer game shops are shutting.
    There aren't many new Movies to make anymore. As the best have already been made. Using many 1000's of hours of love, and effort. HMV Store have a very good selection of Videos.
    Science is nearly Complete. There is very little left to be researched or discovered.
    • Nano Technology can be improved. Russians seem to have a flair for this.

    • SMA (Surface Mount Technology) Pick-and-Place Robots which make smaller circuits using components that are too small to solder easily by hand, have been replaced by the iPod for example which is smaller still. 1/7 size electronics was used, now it is 1/10. Made by specialized machines that cut and drill at the same time.

    • The Intel i7 and Centrino Microprocessors are very good but can be slightly improved on. They do everything required. The Pentium IV Chip with Windows 7 does most things required. There may be a final two Intel Microprocessor models to make. Then the evolution of the Silicon / Galium-Arsenide Chip in Complete. According to those in the know in the industry. I partly studied how to Design a Semiconductor Chip at University, as did the rest of the class. You use a Computer to make a better Computer. I qualified with a BEng 2i Honours. They say 2i's are more imaginative than First Class Honours who swat even more.

    Microsoft Windows 7 works OK but has a few glichs.

    • You can download Windows 7 free from the Microsoft website. Windows 8 is nearly ready. Windows 7 should Shutdown faster. With the old Commodore 64 Games and BASIC Language Computer, with Manual, you just flicked the switch and it turned off. Also there seems to be a problem with the Favourites Button on the Start Menu - it won't work under Google Desktop.
    • They also used to make Microsoft Encarta, with mindmaze. You can probably find this cheap on eBay.com , eBay.co.uk , or eBay.de [German Site]. If you are looking for cheap Infocom Games packaging with manual, check the German Site for Budget Infocom Games about 15 Euros each!
    • There were also some other interest CD-ROM's (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) like a history and explanation of have a wooden sailing ship work. Windows 95/98 Software was plentiful and good!!! Where's it all gone. Please re-release it for the laptop and stand alone PC (available cheap from the computer repair shop) with nothing on it.
    • Microsoft was founded on 4th April 1975, by Bill Gates, and his friend, programmer, businessman, and partner Paul Allen. Which makes Microsoft 37 Years Old. Bill Gates in particular had big stock options in Microsoft. The names derives from Microcomputer + Software put together. He gives generously to charities in the American Pacific Northwest, and to the Poor in the World.

    • Microsoft Stock is steady at around $27 (DEC 2012). It began at $0.09 in 1986.
    • Apple Stock has declined from $750 (NOV 2010) to $520 (DEC 2012). It began at $5 per Share in 1976.
    • HP - Hewlett Packard stock was $50 (2008), and declined from $40 to $20 (last 2012), and is now $13.90 (DEC 2012). Mainly because it invested in the Laptop Business, when it's core Business was Printers, which are quite difficult to design.
    • Facebook Stock opened at $38 (MAY 2012), went down to $18.75 (AUG 2012), then up to $27 (DEC 2012) also.
    • IBM Stock was $578.50 (1962) when Mainframe Computers Ruled (Multi-Terminal Super Computer), then went down to $154.75 (1986) when the PC (IBM Personal Computer, and Clones) came out in 1981, and went to $192.50 (DEC 2012) with Tablets, and Laptops. Their Stock may go up if 'IBM OS' in Launched (2025-30). The last word in Operating Systems with 2-3% the Viruses, NO BUGS, and 4% faster due to 1/4 the RAM (Random Access Memory). Programmed by 20 Systems III Programmers working as one Core Programmer. Requiring 5 years to Programme, plus a Total Test. Making an OS that will last for ALL TIME.
    • An 3.5 Inch Disk Drive may be required to save CD-ROM fabrication material, and make it easier to plug in than a Mem-Stick, and it's big label can be written on to say what's on it. Users may be more likely to use it than a full CD-ROM. 'IBM OS' may want to put a A:, C:, and D: short-cut on the Desktop for the 3 types of drive. They can be found in the 'Start' -> 'My Computer' Panel on Windows XP. It might be more helpful to have these 'Icons' on the Desktop at boot-up. This is when the System loads the Operating System of the Hard Disk Drive. It has a medium amount of ROM (Read Only Memory) which is required to know how to load the system. Hence 'lifting yourself up by your own Boot Straps'. The OS co-ordinates Disks Drive, Mouses, Keyboard, Screen, Sound Card, Modem etc... They works at different speeds so an interrupt to used to talk to each in a row when input or output occurs. The Keyboard is as fast as a User can type.
    • A Telephone Icon is required with the Title 'ISP' (Internet Service Provider). This will allow the User to configure and launch an Internet Account. With E-Mail (POP3 and SMTP - Point of Presence, Send Mail Transfer Protocol), and Newgroups - that can be stored off-line on the Computer and put in User-created Sub-directories.
    • IBM's 'Deep Blue' Chess Playing Computer beat Grandmaster Kasparov in 1997. Containing 30 Nodes, and 480 VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Chess Chips. It had a team of 6 programmers: 2 high level, 2 medium level, and 2 low level; a technician and senior programmer. The programme can be made better still. So they may have to go back again and re-programme the Computer which is very difficult, complicated, and time consuming - to make it Perfect. The Persian phrase Shah Mat literally means "the King is helpless", or Check Mate on the opponent, meaning you Win.

      Kasparov, Bill Gates, 1981 IBM PC, and IBM Mainframe 360.
      "On Balance Microsoft Windows 7 is better than Windows 8". A Windows 7 Upgrade can be downloaded free from the Microsoft Internet Site for Versions like Windows XP.
    • Yahoo Finance is very good at display present and historical Share Prices. Once Yahoo had 90% of Search Engine searches, now it has 10%, displaced by Google with a better name and search technique. Search Engines were first called Gophers like Mosaic.
      As of 2006: Google had 54% of searches (on this site), with Yahoo at 19%, and MSN at 12%! Remember most Yahoo searches will be old ones. Google probably has about 80% of new searches, with Yahoo at 10%. WHAT'S IN A NAME?
      As of DEC 2012: Google had 88.17%, Yahoo 7.87%, MSN 1.01%, and Bing.com 0.94% (on this site).

    A Picture of the Computer at the Xerox Alto Parc, Research Facility that invented the Windows Look and Feel with Mouse; Packet Switching for the Internet (then breaks a Message down into Packets and sends them individually then reassembles them); and Object Orientated Programming like in the C++ Computer Language.
    Tim Berners-Lee, and a Team invented HTML (Hyper-Text Mark-Up Language) and the WWW Address, World Wide Web at CERN which had 100 Computer Types, and 12 Spoken Languages thus allowing the Computers to 'talk' to each other.

    Another Point: Windows XP has a VERY GOOD 'Windows Media Player' for playing and copying CD tracks. You can load it in the following way:

    • Click on 'Start' Button. Select 'All Programs'. Select 'Windows Media Player' to Run it, OR RIGHT CLICK Mouse to 'Create Shortcut' on Desktop to access it anytime, easily.
    • The 'European Commission' bulldozed the 'Start' -> 'Favourites' Option of the PROMPT but it is back again, because it's GOOD. You can bookmark interesting internet sites, and call them up again. A Media Player Shortcut on the Desktop would be most Welcome with the PC as Brand New. Perhaps a small MANUAL about Windows with the New Computer would help. Also to explain how to load 'Outlook Express' E-Mail, and Newsgroup/USENET Client. You can learn a lot from Newsgroups. 'Outlook Express' remembers all you old E-mails, and Newsgroup Post; and can store them in Sub-Directories, or Delete them if not required.
    David Ledgard, Colonization Webmaster
    God save the KING!
    The Webmaster outside Buckingham Palace, London.

    E-Mail Webmaster with questions, material, and comments: david.ledgard@tiscali.co.uk

    About Webmaster
    including Jobs, Education, and Travels. Other interests include Arcade & Strategy Computer Gaming and Programming.

    http://www.colonization.biz/me/books.htm interesting books about Science Fiction, Adventure, and History. With exciting book covers. Before Microcomputers (early 1980's) there was Science Fiction. The stories exercise the mind, and explore possible alternative Universes.

    I have lived in a converted Tenement Building for quite a few years, with 12 other Residents. It is for people with Middle Level Mental Health Problems. In Portsmouth, which is a bit like the Old Eastend used to be as it is on a built up Island.

    Many Colonists fled to the American Colonies seeking Religious, or Economic Freedom e.g. the Puritans in New England, the Quakers in Pennsylvania, and the English Catholics of Maryland. Some of them Sailed from Portsmouth. 'Indentured Servants' were given passage on a Ship in return for 7 Years Indentured Labour. A lot of German Blood came in to open up new Territories e.g. the Waltons, and has now breed into part German blood.

    German Expert Silver Miners for example were sent for, as they knew how to Mine Silver. The 'Holy Roman Empire' (a lose collection of German Speaking States, and Principalities) having a little Silver at that time. It is now all mined out.

    Also some of my Great Grandfathers relatives emigrated to near Chicago as Master Weavers. Having learned their trade in Yorkshire.

    Clean Nuclear Fusion Power, Moonbase, and Mining Near earth Asteroids
    • Clean Nuclear Fusion Power has only got to 6 Minutes 30 Seconds duration so far; in the European Union Research Lab in the South of France. This is better than the previous 40 Seconds Record. Fusion Power could be 1/3 the Price per Kilowatt/Hour. But there is a Wattage Problem on the Line so only 1/3 the Heating is available. I think Computers and Televisions use a lot less Wattage. A Fusion Plant could last 40 Years. 10 generations could make 400 Years Electricity!!!

    • The Human Genome still has some secrets to yield, for example: Curing Genetic Diseases. It can't be decoded completely as this is impossible, as there isn't enough data to go on.

    • A Moonbase could be constructed. Also, a Manned Mars Mission may be on the cards, if the Moonbase can mine materials to make the Mars Ship. Also LLOX (Lunar-derived Liquid Oxygen and Hydrogen separated i.e. processed Water Ice) Rocket Fuel could be made on the Moon. With a cheap Mag-leth Rail to shot the cargo to near Moon Orbit. Gravity is only 1/6 on the Moon meaning it is much cheaper to project cargo into Space; and 1/3 on Mars. Science Fiction thought about things like this 50 or more Years ago. Especially the Great Authors Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke.

    • Three Near Earth Asteroids could be mined for Rare Earth Metals. They would be easy to reach with a Space Elevator, and Economic to mine using Robots. They consist of Water Ice (for Life and LOX - Liquid Oxygen Fuel) - H2O (2 Hydrogen, 1 Oxygen), and a Nickel-Iron Core, and could be used for building a Spaceship to Mars. They also contain Amino Acids which are the building blocks of DNA, a first step to Life. Amino Acids are formed by using radiation from the Sun. Rare Earth Metals are used in Mobile Phones, Computer Microprocessor Chips, Display Units, Televisions... and may run out one day, if they can't be recovered. The Ice Asteroids can act as Fuel Stations for Asteroid Mining Spaceships.

    • 1,000 Near Earth Asteroids pass near Earth. Metal other than Aluminium can be forged using Electricity. But it requires a lot more power. Gold and Platinum can also be mined from some. At the present price (DEC 2012) of $1,650/Ounce this would make $52.8 Million a Ton. The price was only $872/Once before (DEC 2008). Making it much more economical. With fixed price mining and transport cost the same, with twice the price as income.

    • "Based on known terrestrial reserves and growing consumption in developing countries, there is speculation that key elements needed for modern industry, including zinc, tin, silver, lead, indium, gold, and copper, could be exhausted on Earth within 50–60 years. In response, it has been suggested that platinum, cobalt and other valuable elements from asteroids may be mined and sent to Earth for profit, used to build solar-power satellites and space habitats, and water processed from ice to refuel orbiting propellant depots."

      "In fact, all the gold, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, and tungsten mined from the Earth's crust, and that are essential for economic and technological progress, came originally from the rain of asteroids that hit the Earth after the crust cooled."

      God can get 1/3 of Key Elements and Metals back from the Earth's Core, plus the Asteroids being Mined so there should not be a great shortage. Copper for example is abundant but the price of Petroleum may make it prohibitively expensive to mine.

    • There may also be a Mars, and then Jupiter Mission (as told in Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: a Space Odyssey. Read the Book, it's much better than the Film). Using Materials Mined on the Moon from the Moonbase. Saturn is too far from the Sun. It is too Cold to get too. A Jupiter Mission would require x10 the Fuel of a Mars Mission.

    Famous Mathematicians and Philosophers
    • Descartes [1596-1650] (also a Philosopher: 'I think. Therefore I am.' He designed Cartesian co-ordinates, the x-y Axis.
    • Pascal [1623-1662] who made the Jacquard Loom with Punched Cards, to weave complex colourful patterns. He also proposed the argument the 'God is very unlikely to exist because he would make the Universe unnecessarily over complicated'. But God does quite a lot of things for the world e.g. the Holy Spirit helping to write Books, or make some TV shows.
    • La Place Transforms [1749-1827] for frequency Analysis
    • Fourier Transforms [1768-1830] for digital signal processing e.g. for Digital Hearing Aids
    • Charles Babbage [1791–1871] designed the Analytical Difference Engine to calculate Logarithms for Ship's Navigational Tables. It was mechanical in nature, and couldn't be made and engineering precision wasn't high enough. Two copies now exist: one in the Science Museum, London; and the other is owned by Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft [1975-****]. Also of Spaceship one fame, and pixar studio that did 'Toy Story'.
    • Maxwell's Equations [1862] - made the laws of Electro-Magnetism in a set of Elegant Mathematical Differential Equations, about Voltage (V), Current (I), and Resistance (R). Plus Induction, Electricity, and Magnetism.
    • The École de Mathematic of Napoleons time, a by product of the Revolution. They Invented the Decimal Metric System e.g. angtrom, nm, µm, mm, cm, dm, m, dm, hm, km... Incidentally the pin width of Computer IC's in 0.1 Inch, or 0.05 Inch e.g. RAM (Random Access Memory), BIOS Chip and Microprocessors. Computer Disk Drive used to be 8 Inch (very rare), 5.25 Inch, and 3.5 Inch.

    The British Amateur Electronics Club
    These articles may be of some interest:
    • The proposed BAEC Computer with Core Memory and Tele-printer. No. 35 Newsletter, October 1974 Newsletter.
    • Servicing TV and Video Equipment. No. 103 Newsletter, March 1992 Newsletter.
    • A Little History: Electricity and Magnetism. No. 110 December 1993 Newsletter.
    • An introduction to SCART by David Vere - also known as a Peritel Connector or Euro Connector. It was always there but hardly ever used. Pre-Digital Boxes! No. 128 June 1998 Newsletter.
    • No. 129 September 1998 Newsletter
      • [Updated Jun06] Introduction to the Internet Part 1 - Getting Connected - using Dial-up!
        • [Jul98-2000] -> [Jul98-Jun06] Changes registered using tracker (much more detail in Article).
        • Netscape 48.8% -> 17.51%
        • MSIE 46.41% -> 81.03%
        • Other 4.77% -> 1.45%
    • No. 130 December 1998 Newsletter
    • No. 131 March 1999 Newsletter
      • Introduction to the Internet Part 3 - Quick Guide to Writing Internet Pages using HTML.
        NoteTab Pro is very good for writing HTML Code for Internet Pages. It's much better than NotePad.
    • No. 132 June 1999 Newsletter
      • 25 Years since the first Microcomputer - 1974: the MITS Altair.
        With Intel 8080 processor (8-bit), 256 bytes of memory, and a toggle-switch-and-LED front panel. Note: also it is 30th Anniversary [1982] of the ZX Sinclair Spectrum Microcomputer for Computer Games in Colour with Keyboard. Sir Clive Sinclair says computers are now nothing more than a "Multimedia Experience" for the Internet and Encyclopaedia. There are no Software Games or Products in the Shops even though my site is full of them. Or they aren't known to them. People are feed up with watching the TV all day and want an interesting and challenging computer game to play. Even the PC is hardly available, only the laptop with small screen. People play with their mobile phones when great intellectually challenging games have been written.

      http://baec.tripod.com/ B.A.E.C. Archive. The Club was set up in South Wales in 1966, and posted a quarterly Newsletter. Advertising in Everyday Electronics, and Elektor Electronics Hobbyist Magazines. It had members from all over the British Isles, plus a few foreigners, and ex-pat Engineers. The Newsletter was printed in several Colours, different for each year.

    Grand Unification Field Theory???
    Physics may not be a Good Career Move. As the only jobs open are Teachers, and a few Scientists. I watched the Open University Videos on Physics. This gives half the ideas with out expanding the Brain with highly advanced Mathematics which turns you into a "Phaffer" i.e. You just lecture and discuss Physics all day. Most Lecturers have character and 10% are needed elsewhere in the work force.

    The Grand Unification Theory wants to unite Quantum Physics, with the Hawkings-Penrose Superstring Theory Universe, with Electro-Magnetism, with Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity; Which includes Sir Isaac Newton's Theory [1642-1727] of Gravity at speed no where near the speed of light. Newton is regarded as the first Scientist of the modern age, after the Ancient Greek Philosophers of Antiquity. Newton famously mentioned the Apple falling down from the tree as his inspiration for the Theory of Gravity.

    And how can this new faster than light [sub-atomic] Particle exist? Of the Neutrino type. Discovered at CERN. Faster than light travel is supposed to be impossible by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The News gave scant coverage to this VERY important break with Science.

    [08/07/12] The News has just reported that the Large Hadron Collider ("LHC") at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland — one of the most complicated in the world - has discovered the Higgs Bosen Elementary Particle. This was predicted by theory but was very difficult to find as it had to pass through two Stars. It is also predicted that there may be parallel dimensions, by Physicists. Perhaps as many as 10 including our own - the Earth, Moon, and Planets in the visited Solar System.

    To continue there are some unclear points. I used to believe the Big Bang created the Universe out of a Singularity, but this might not be quite correct as is. It is stated in Astronomy that 170 billion Galaxies appear to exist in the Universe. With our Galaxy the Milky Way measuring 100,000-120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200–400 billion Stars! Allegedly! That is an incredibly large amount of Stars and Planets. Perhaps the further Galaxies and Stars are projected by some means to test our Faith. Further Quantum Singularities, which are incredibly complex can Warp Space and might project other Galaxies etc...

    Also, Darwinian Natural Selection - who selects which off-spring will evolve, Death??? How??? How can a Caterpillar turn into a Chrysalis turn into a Butterfly by blind luck??? Without someone to design it? The Human Genome clearly exists, and can be mutated slightly by radiation from the Sun. Also it combines some traits from each Parent. But how can it evolve into something like a Colourful Parrot. How can blind chance recognise beauty in the Parrot?

    It turns out God does exist and does all sorts of things for the World that he can't say because no one would believe him!!!!!

    The Core - How the Earth Makes and Recycles Goods and Resources
    As you probably know the earth is mined for products like Coal, Iron, Steel (3 times stronger than Iron), Oil, Plastic etc... The New Goods arrive from the Mine or Oil Well and are manufactured into finished products which are sold. When they have been used up as Food or Drink Packaging; Old Automobiles, Fridges, Freezers, washing Machines etc... they then go back to a 'store'. Some of them come out again as new product components, like parts for new Computers, and other Information Technology / Consumer Electronic equipment.

    The are currently 190 'Procurement Facilities' , or P.F.'s in the World. Old items are collected by a Van, and new items arrive as a Coal Train, Transport Ship, or a different van. There clearly can't be an infinite amount of anything to mine, and Rubbish Dumps that never get full to over flowing. So the old Rubbish must come around again as new Bits. One P.F. can also make heat for warmth for geographical regions it is near like New York City, or London. These Cities seem to have enough power for Housing, Industry, Street Lighting, and Mass Transit Systems.

    There seems to be a lot of Electricity in the World. The Earth's Mantle makes Heat which generates Photons. These can be captured to amplify Electricity. The Core can make lots of Electricity especially for the 10,000's of Towers that are being built in the World and China, and less so in India. Which all require Light, Televisons and Internet Connections.

    There always seem to be enough Aluminium Cans in the Shop. So they must be collected from the bins, and remade.

    Synthesizers make Oil from Carbon in the Earth's Atmosphere, and 10% from the Earth. The first one appeared in 1920, and a lot came along during and a bit after WWII. They are the rooted types made by God. Most people can't see them because they are on a alternate Earth. New computerised ones are appearing as half the old Rooted ones are dying. The new ones require an operator to work them to find the best Carbon locations. The Oil is made in countries that don't have enough Oil. The Oil from the Gulf is transported half way around the World which you'd think would require ALL the Oil in the tanks in the ship to get there. So their must be an additional power source to drive the ship.

    It is believed two Black Holes can link together because they have a Singularity at their centre, and pass information but not matter. There may be many micro-Black Holes in the Universe, even close to Earth. Two Black Holes linked together are called a Wormhole. Reference: 'The Visual Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction' [1977].

    Science says the Universe was created by a Singularity. It seeded 10 further Singularities, that can make things. The Earth, the Stars, and the Planets were then created.

    A Quantum Singularity is "like a black hole, only portable, and with a cooler name." In the scientific sense they are massive, localized distortions of space and time. They are incredibly complex can Warp Space. They are virtually invisible to anyone who isn't linked to one. There may be 1000's of them that work in groups of 2, 10, 20, or more.

    Note: Type 'www.colonization.biz/col.htm' to get full page without Menu for Printing.
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